Cauayan is a 1st class Philippine municipality located in the province of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas Region or Region VI which belongs to the Visayas group of islands. The municipality of Cauayan is seated about 85 km south – southwest of Bacolod City, the provincial capital and about 543 km south – southeast of Manila, the Philippine capital.
Cauayan is classified as partly urban and is politically subdivided into 25 barangays which are categorized into coastal and upland barangays. It occupies a total land area of 520 km² and by the end of 2007; Cauayan is home to 93,569 residents. Thus by average, 179.94 people are living on one square kilometer of the municipality.
Administratively the Municipality of Cauayan is subdivided into 25 barangays. One forms the center of the city wheras the other 24 are in the outlying areas. Some of them are even several kilometers away from the center of the Municipality. The most populous are Sura, Baclao, Tambad, Tomina, Lumbia, Elihan, Molobolo, Abaca, Camindangan, Yao-yao, Man-Uling, Basak, Tiling, Talacdan, Linaon.
Among the bigger cities and municipalities in the neighborhood of Cauayan there are San Carlos City 90 km north-east, City Of Kabankalan 20 km east, Bacolod City 85 km north-north-east, Silay City 99 km north-north-east, Iloilo City (Iloilo) 80 km north, Bago City 66 km north-north-east, City Of Guihulngan (Negros Oriental) 72 km east-north-east, Hinigaran 41 km north-east, City Of Talisay 93 km north-north-east as well as 30 km east-north-east of Cauayan the municipality City Of Himamaylan.